Two of the most popular providers of logical reasoning tests used by colleges and employers are the SHL and Kenexa tests. They are practice tests used to prepare for taking logical reasoning tests given by college admissions offices and employers. They can be taken either on-site or on-line. Logical reasoning allow administrators to know about your ability to think using reason and logic and they may include abstract testing, numerical testing, verbal or nonverbal logical reasoning or a number of other type of tests. There is often no cost to take a preparatory test although some online administrators do charge a small fee.

### Abstract Logical Reasoning Tests

Used often in assessment centers, the abstract logical reasoning tests look for the students ability to draw assumptions and understand the conclusion to the assumption. Practice tests consist of 5 abstract reasoning tests and 9 diagrammatical tests and there are 400 questions. They ask the student to find missing symbols with the use of a matrix.

Abstract reasoning tests are often known as diagrammatical tests. You may have to identify a symbol or shape and place them in a series of sets that are arranged in a variety of ways. The shapes consist of stars, triangles, arrows, circles, squares and an assortment of other symbols. The symbol may be missing from the sets lsited in the question or they be a continuation in the order of symbols in one of the sets.

### Numerical Reasoning Tests

Also known as mathematical aptitude tests or psychometric tests, numerical reasoning tests are often used in college recruitment centers, although career development centers and employers also administer them. Practice tests are available to help in the preparation for taking the numerical reasoning test and consist of solving mathematical problems, understanding the scoring process and completing the test in a reasonable amount of time.

Used in employment agencies, the numerical logical reasoning test is primarily for those who use numbers in their job. For managers, sales personnel, accountants, clerical personnel,and other professions where numerical reasoning abilities are used, the employer or career development agency may require that this test be taken. The test may consist of the problems using graphs, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division problems, plus percentages and possibly the solving of algebraic equations. You may also see questions relating to money and simple principle and interest equations.

### Syllogisms Aptitude Tests

Another type of logical reasoning test, this test is used in relation to IQ and aptitude tests. Used in psycometric assessment tests, syllogism tests determine your logical reasoning ability. With various diagrams such as the Venn diagram, students must make viable choices related to a list of statements using a Venn diagram to find a conclusion. An example of the syllogism aptitude test is as follows: 1.) No dog is a cat 2.) Some dogs are not cats 3.) Some dogs are not bob cats.

With the use of overlapping circles that are labeled accordingly the student should be able to make a correct choice. The Venn diagram shows the obvious relationship between each statement and logical conclusions are made from the two, the Venn diagram and each statement. Solving a syllogism test correctly can easily be done by reading and interpreting each statement in order to come to a valid conclusion using the diagram.

### Inductive, Abductive and Deductive Logical Reasoning Tests

Inductive logical reasoning tests are a risky form of logical reasoning because conclusions can always be wrong. Commonly used in physics and philosophy, one can never make assumptions about something without further knowledge about the topic. A specific statement always has a general conclusion. An example of an inductive logical reasoning test is: All sheep are white. Because this conclusion was made by those who were observing white sheep, the conclusion is wrong. Why are they wrong? Because there are also many sheep that are black. Inductive reasoning tests can be designed using nearly any topic.

### Abductive Reasoning

Used in scientific research, abductive reasoning tests are similar to inductive because conclusions are based on probability or the assumption about a certain topic. Most conclusions are correct, however, as you will see in the following example. 1.) The bag is filled with green jellybeans. 2.) There are green jelly beans in my hand.

3.) The green jelly bean in my hand was taken from the bag of green jelly beans. The conclusion is number 3, the green jelly bean in my hand was taken from the bag of green jelly beans. This conclusion is correct.

### Deductive Reasoning

Also a type of logical reasoning, the deductive reasoning test is used both in math and philosophy. This is the most plausible type of reasoning of the three types. It applies to a general rule in certain situations where a conclusion is drawn. An example may be: 1.) All dogs are mammals 2.) Lassie is a dog 3.) Lassie is a mammal. The conclusion is obvious. No new information is needed to come to the conclusion. The conclusion comes from the information that is provided on the test and it can be rearranged to create a new and different statement.

There are a wide variety of logical reasoning tests administered by grade schools, high schools, colleges and employers. They test a students ability to think logically and also to use proper reasoning skills. Employment offices, career development centers, college admissions officers, employers and school guidance counselors all use them as part of a screening process and to fulfill state requirements. There are free aptitude tests online to help prepare for the test and they consist of verbal and nonverbal tests, numerical tests, abstract reasoning tests and syllogism aptitude tests. Each test is different and involves careful reading and interpretation of what is read, then making a correct choice from a range of answers.

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